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Perfection of The Shari'ah
[Islamic Law]
Abdul Qader Abdul Aziz
al-Jumu'ah Magazine

  • "How can we understand Today Islam in the light of the Quran and the  Sunnah of the Holy Prophet?"
  • "Does it all apply to us in our day to day living?"
  • "Or is there a need to "rethink" the "Shari'ah"? [Islamic Laws]

A Jewish man, once, said to Umar ibn Al-Khattab, radiallaho anhu, regarding the verse:

'This day I have completed your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you and have selected for your Way of Life, Al-Islam."
[Holy Quran, 5:3]

"If this verse [above] had been revealed to us, we would have taken the day it was revealed as an Eid (a day of celebration)."

Umar said,
"I know the day when this verse was revealed; it was revealed on the day of Arafah [standing on Mount Arafah on the Day of Hajj [pilgrimage] on a Friday."
(Bukhari)

Ibn Abas said,
"It was revealed in two days of Eid; Friday and Arafah."

Imam Ibn Hajar said,
"We would have taken the day it was revealed as an Eid" means that we would have honored this day and celebrated it every year, because the occurrence of the completion of the religion is tremendously great."

Because the Islamic Shari'ah is the last guidance to humans revealed by Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, it had to be complete, perfect, and able to suffice for all the needs of mankind in this life and the Hereafter.

Allah says,
'This day I have completed your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you and have selected for your Way of Life, Al-Islam."[Holy Quran, 5:3]
and He says, "...And We have sent down to you the Qur'an explaining all things..."
[Holy Quran, 16:89]


Ash-Shatibi said, Ibn Habeeb said, Ibn Al-Majshoon informed me that he heard Imam Malik saying,
"Whosoever introduces any new matter to this Ummah (nation) which was not embraced by it's Salaf (predecessors), then he would be claiming that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, betrayed the Message (of Islam) because Allah says,

'This day I have completed your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you and have selected for your Way of Life, Al-Islam."[Holy Quran, 5:3]

Therefore, what was not (part of the) religion then it is not (part of the)
religion today.

Ash-Shatibi added,
"Allah sent down the Shari'ah to His Messenger with all the explaining that is needed for all mankind; the duties they are ordered to carry out and the acts of worship that are made obligatory on them. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, did not die until the Religion was fully completed. Allah attests to this,

'This day I have completed your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you and have selected for your Way of Life, Al-Islam."

Therefore, any one who claims that any part of the religion was left out or incomplete is belying the verse,

'This day I have completed your religion for you,..."

Ash-Shatibi then said,
"But the intended completion is the completion of the broad fundamental basis. No needed base of the religion that is related to the essentials, necessities, or complements was ever left out without being explained in full. It is true that there will be some particular aspects that are not mentioned directly, but are left for the Mujtahid to derive its rulings based upon these broad fundamental bases, because Ijtihad base is guaranteed by the Qur'an and the Sunnah and must be put into practice and not be abandoned."

Aisha, radiallaho anha said,
"Never believe anyone who tells you that the Prophet concealed any part of the Wahee (revelation), because Allah says,'O Messenger! Proclaim the (Message), which has been sent down to you from your Lord. If you do not; then you have not conveyed His Message.'(Bukhari).

Also, Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aaz reported that the Prophet,
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said,

"It was obligatory upon all the Prophets before me that they lead their nations to what they know to be best for them and to warn them of what they know to be evil for them." (Muslim)

In summary it means that Allah gave to the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, the ability to put the most comprehensive of meanings into a few words.

This applies to both, the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Speech was very well condensed for him.
This makes Shari'ah easy to memorize and transmit.
This privilege is exclusive to this Ummah, as Allah says,

"Nay, but it (Qur'an) is clear verses in the hearts of those endowed with knowledge." [Holy Quran, 29:49]

This evidence provides the following conclusions:

  • Shari'ah is fully complete.
  • Shari'ah contains all that mankind needs to live a whole and sound life:
    In this World
    And in the Next World
  • The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, conveyed the whole entirety of the Shari'ah and did not conceal any part of it.
    The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, did not leave out anything that is good for us except that he led us unto it.
    He left out not anything that is evil except that he warned us about it.
  • This fundamental principal, the "Completion and Perfection of the Shari'ah," ordains the following facts:
    - Since the Shari'ah is fully complete,
    Nothing can be added to it.
    Nothing can be subtracted from it.

This fact establishes the invalidity of all types of Bid'ahs and invention,
old and new.

  • The perfection of the Shari'ah and its transmission by the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, means that there is no place in this religion of Islam for such things as Ilmul-Batin, or inner Knowledge as some want to call it, that is contrary to the perceptible (Dhahir) or the reality (Haqiqah) of the Shari'ah.

    This guarantees the invalidity of all schools of thought

    and interpretation of the Batiniah (those who believe that there is more to the Shari'ah than its direct and perceptible meaning), as in the case of the Ismailiyah, atheists and some of the Sufis, among others; those who say that salah is not the bowing, the prostration and recitation but it is something else.

    Some of them also say that Paradise and Hellfire are just metaphors and symbols, and apply these and other similar concepts to the rest of the Shari'ah.

  • The completion and the perfection of the Shari'ah means that it is above, and free from, contradiction and inconsistency. Allah says,

"Do they not ponder on the Qur'an? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surly find therein much discrepancy."[Holy Quran, 4:82]
and
"...And indeed it is an honorable and exalted Book. No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it: It is sent down by the One full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise"
[Holy Quran, 41:41-42].

  • - Some statements may seem to be in contradiction to one another. Such 'apparent confusion' does not apply to the scholars who know how to interpret each statement in accordance with its connotation.

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said,
"The Qur'an did not come down so for one part of it to contradict the other, but rather to confirm one another. Therefore practice the part you understand and refer the part you don't to the one who knows it"
(Authentic, Ahmad and Al-Baghawi)

  • The perfection of the Shari'ah means that in Islam every matter has a ruling governing it. This ruling can be an Order, a Prohibition or a Permission. This ruling can be direct and independent or included in some other comprehensive principle. Not knowing the ruling does not mean the Shari'ah is not complete, rather it means that the Mujtahid, or the researcher for the ruling, was not able to find it and he must seek the help of some one who is more knowledgeable than him.
  • The perfection of the Shari'ah means that it is not in need for any of the previous abrogated religions or any human experiences-like the man made laws or any other philosophy.
  • Therefore, any one who claims that the Muslims are in need of any such canons is considered to be a Kafer, or a disbeliever, for he belied Allah's saying:

"This day I have completed your religion for you."[Holy Quran, 5:3]
and His saying,"...Your Lord is never forgetful."[Holy Quran, 19:64].

  • Equal in Kufr, or disbelief, is the one who claims that the Muslims are in need for the systems of Democracy, Communism or any other ideology, without which the Muslim lived and applied the rules of Allah in matters that faced them for fourteen centuries. The Great Islamic Khilafah was established and flourished without experiencing any need for such ideologies.
  • The Khalifahs used to administer territories of many different nations and races, which expanded from west of China to Spain. They ruled them by the Law of Allah. They appointed governors, cabinets, judges, controllers, etc. They used to collect the monies and spend them according to Islam. No one then said, "The Shari'ah Laws do not apply to governing or to economics" or "The Laws of Shari'ah are not fit to handle such matters."
  • The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said,

"The Prophets used to govern the children of Israel; every time a Prophet passes away another Prophet succeeds him and there is no Prophet to come after me and there will be many Khalifahs to come". They said, "What do you command us to do?" He said: "Fulfill your pledge of allegiance to them one after another and give them their due right and indeed Allah will ask them about their fellow citizens."(Bukhari and Muslim).

  • Siyasah, or the government and statehood administration, means, "Administrating the matters in the best fitting manner." Al-Mawardi said, "The Imamah (Statehood Administration) is founded as a succession to the Prophet hood in safeguarding the religion and administrating the worldly affairs."
    (Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniah, by al-Mawardi, page 5)

Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, says,
"And no example do they bring to you but We reveal to you the truth and the best explanation thereof."
[Holy Quran, 25:33]

  • Substituting Islam with man made laws is not allowed. It is not permissible to mix Islam with those laws like those who claimed such things as; "Islamic Socialism" and "Islamic Democracy."

Allah says,
"Most of them believe not in Allah without associating (others as partners) with Him."
[Holy Quran, 12:106]

  • Mixing Islam with any thing else is considered to be a kind of associating partners with Allah, the Greatest.

Allah says, in regard to distinction and independence of Islam from other religions and worldly systems,
"Say, 'O you Unbelievers, I worship not that which you worship.
Nor do you worship that which I worship. And I will not worship that which you have been worshipping. Nor will you worship that which I worship.'"
[Holy Quran, 109:1-5]
and
"And rule and judge between them by that Allah has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but be aware of them lest they beguile you from any of that which Allah sent down to you."
[Holy Quran, 5:49]


May Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala guide us and keep us on the Straight Path and keep us away from all the innovations in the Deen of Al-Islam, Ameen.

Note: Slight modifications to the translations and wording have been made by our staff here at Today Islam. - ed.

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